Jump to Present
participle, Past Participle, Passive
Form, The Future, Exercise
Vocabulary - Numbers 101 - ...
|två hundraett etc.
|tre hundra etc.
|(ett) tusen ['tu:sen]
|två tusen etc.
|en miljon [mil'jo:n]
|en miljard [mil'ja:d]
|en biljon [bil'jo:n]
|en biljard [bil'ja:d]
|en triljon [tril'jo:n]
|en triljard [tril'jad]
Note: When counting we always say ett, tjogoett, hundraett
etc. But if the number is followed by a noun we use the en-form.
en bil - ett fönster = one car - one window
tjogoen bilar - tjugoen fönster = 21 cars - 21 window
År nittonhundraett = In 1901
|brinna (i) [*brina]
|en eld -ar [eld]
|ta (i) [ta:]
|kosta (1) [*kåsta]
|ett brev - [bre:v]
|någon(t), några [*nå:gån]
|en gång -er [gåg]
||time (four times e.g.)
|tänka (2) [*tänka]
|läsa (2) [*lä:sa]
The present participle
- The present participle in English is formed by attaching -ing
to the verb (a walking man). In Swedish it's almost as simple as
that. You attach -nde to the infinitive of polysyllabic verbs, and
-ende to the infinitive of monosyllabic verbs.
- A few monosyllabic get a slightly irregular ending. This is because
the original verb was longer.
bli - blivande (The original verb was bliva and could
be used today as well)
ha - havande (The original verb was hava)
ta - tagande (The original verb was taga)
- Note that the Swedish present participle can't be used as in English
I am helping you or He is eating. We use the present tense
The past participle
The past participle is used in phrases like I am seen, an interested
woman etc. As you can see, in English form used to construct the past
participle is the same as the form used in the perfect tense. That is not
the case in Swedish. Here we used the supine to construct the perfect tense,
and that is also the only time when the supine is used - for the perfect
and the past perfect. The past participle, however, is formed like this,
note that it has to be inflected as an adjective:
| Past participle
||- Skriven - Brevet är skrivet
||- Sedd - Vi är sedda
The passive form
- The passive form is used in sentences like The child is seen by
the dad. The contrary is the active form, which would be The dad
sees the cild. In Swedish, you can make the passive form in to ways
- either by using the verb bli + past participle (inflected as an
The letter is being written by me - Brevet blir skrivet
The letter was written by me -
Brevet blev skrivet av mig.
The letter has been written by me - Brevet har blivit skrivet av
- An easier and more frequently used way of expressing the passive form
is by attaching an s to the end of the main verb:
The letter is being written by me - Brevet skrivs
The letter was written by me -
Brevet skrevs av mig.
The letter has been written by me - Brevet har skrivits av mig.
Expressing the future
- Swedish has got two ways of expressing the future. The first one is
komma att + infinitive, which is like the English will. The
second one is ska + infinitive, which is like the English to
be going to + infinitive.
Exercise - Translate
the following sentences into Swedish
1 - To be loved is very important.
2 - Whose book is read the most?
3 - This book will be written next summer.
4 - What are you going to do next spring?
How do you say these years in Swedish?
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Last updated the 27th of March
Copyright Björn Engdahl 2008