Note that the definite form of the noun is to be used after den här / de där etc. and that the indefinite form is to be used after denna/detta and dessa.
Nouns 3 - Plural indefinite
The plural form of Swedish nouns isn't as easy as that of an English noun, where you just add an s. Swedish nouns are more like German nouns. We attach different suffixes for different nouns. In some cases, you could tell what suffix be added just by looking at the noun, and in some cases you just have to memorize the suffix for each noun.
Here are the endings:
Common genders -
en flick|a - flera flickor
en pojk|e - flera pojkar
en rad - flera rader (=row, not quarrel)
en bok - flera böcker
Those were the common genders, the neuters are much easier.
ett äpple - flera äpplen (=apple)
ett fönster - flera fönster
ett fängelse - flera fängelser (=prison)
ett fakt|um - flera fakta (=fact)
ett ög|a - flera ögon (=eye)
Well, that was the plural indefinite, and now we're coming to the plural definite! How do you think that is formed? You're right, by adding a suffix of course! But don't worry. It is not very complicated at all.
The pronunciation could in some cases be more important than you think. For example such a small difference as *anden and 'anden completely changes the meaning of the word. *Anden means the spirit and 'anden means the duck. Quite embarrassing for a priest to say the holy duck instead of the holy spirit, isn't it?
The pronunciation of the plural isn't very difficult. All words having to syllables after having added the plural suffix employ the grave accent. (Not the irregular ones with umlaut - they employ the accute accent).
'dag - *dagar
'bok - 'böcker
Some more nouns:
As in German and French, the adjectives inflect depending on the number and gendrer of the noun they describe. There are also, as in German, a weak and strong inflection. The weak inflection is used after Denna / Det här etc. The strong inflection is used after en, ett and after words that don't tell the gender of the noun.
The big house = Det stora huset (Not just stora huset)
Not very difficult either. You add a t on neu. sing. and a on all plurals. A few irregular forms do exist however.
en röd boll - ett rött hus(röd=red)
en intresserad kvinna - den intresserade kvinnan - två intresserade kvinnor (intresserad=interesting)
en bra bok - ett bra hus
Exercise - Translate the following sentences into Swedish
I see many yellow shirts.
We live in a red house.
Why do you have 52 blue hands.
The nice girls are very beautiful.
I would like to pay for this nice dinner.
Any opinions, comments, corrections are welcome to this address:
Copyright Björn Engdahl 2008